Academic writing

Academic writing is complex, formal, objective, explicit, hedged, and responsible. It is organized and planned precisely and accurately. Writing is considered the most difficult skill for first, foreign and second language learners. The more you read, the more you will learn about English language. Effective writing is an essential skill for any profession. Academic English is a unique set of rules which should be explicit, formal, factual, objective and analytical in nature.

In acquiring writing skill, the writer goes through some activities such as control of content, format, sentence structure, vocabulary, punctuation, spelling and letter formation and the writer must be able to structure and integrate information into cohesive and coherent paragraph and text (Nunan, 2000). For good academic writing, researchers should learn the strategies of writing in English through the studies conducted by the experts in the field. According to Stern (1975) there are ten strategies for good practice of writing in English. Here are the strategies to be considered in writing: Planning strategy, Active strategy, Emphatic strategy, Formal strategy, Experimental strategy, Semantic strategy, Practice strategy, Communicative strategy, Monitoring strategy and Internalization strategy.


An essay is defined as a short literary composition on a particular theme or subject, usually in prose and generally analytic, speculative, or interpretative; especially it is done by students as part of the work for a course, assignment, etc. An essay is a form of writing in paragraph form using formal or informal language. Essays are an important piece of literature that can be used in a variety of situations. They’re a flexible type of writing, which makes them useful in many settings. History can be traced and understood through essays from theorists, leaders, artists of various arts, and regular citizens of countries throughout the world and time. For students, learning to write essays is also important because as they leave school and enter college and/or the work force, it is vital for them to be able to express themselves well.

Term Papers

A term paper is a research paper written by students over an academic term, accounting for a large part of a grade. It is defined as “a major written assignment in a school or college course representative of a student’s achievement during a term”(Merriam-Webster). Term papers are generally intended to describe an event, a concept, or argue a point. It is a written original work discussing a topic in detail. A term paper was originally a written assignment (usually a research based paper) that was due at the end of the “term”—either a semester or quarter, depending on which unit of measure a school used. However, not all term papers involve academic research, and not all research papers are term papers.

Course work/ Assignments

Coursework is an important part of the educational structure. Colleges prefer assigning coursework to students to give them an opportunity to showcase their academic potential. They are given deadlines for completing and submitting their coursework. It is important for students to finish the coursework successfully to gain flying grades.  It might be easy for many, but writing coursework is quite challenging. Just like giving an exam in the exam hall. Time provided to the coursework students is more as compared to the students giving the exam. However, the extended time for completing the coursework also increases the expectation regarding a perfect assignment. Assignments (coursework and homework) are an important part of your work at University. 

Case Study

In the social and life sciences, a case study is a research method involving an up-close, in-depth, and detailed examination of a particular case. A case study is a research strategy and an empirical inquiry that investigates a phenomenon within its real-life context. A case study is defined as a “detailed examination of an event (or series of related events) which the analyst believes exhibits (or exhibit) the operation of some identified general theoretical principles” (Mitchell, 1983). Most scholars agree that a case study is not a particular method but a strategy (Stoecker, 1991, Yin, 1994). Stoecker (1991) explained that case studies allow researchers to explore different outcomes of general processes suggested by theories depending on different contexts.

Case studies are often used in exploratory research. They can help us generate new ideas (that might be tested by other methods). They are an important way of illustrating theories and can help show how different aspects of a person’s life are related to each other. The method is therefore important for psychologists who adopt a holistic point of view.  

Memo/Letter Writing

A memo or memorandum is a short message used for internal communication in a business organisation. The use of Memos is to communicate speedily with a wide range of employees or people something brief but essential. Office memos are written to inform employees of specific changes, events, or any other point of interest that is vital.

Letter writing is an art as well as a social and business asset. The capability to write a good and perfect letter can be as useful as the capability to speak well and the capability to maintain exceptional inter-personal relationships. Effective communication through letters saves much time and promotes understanding as well as business. Furthermore, letter writing is a significant part of various competitive exams as well. Candidates in competitive examinations are asked to write a letter in the descriptive papers to assess their writing skills. Letter writing is a complicated task as it demands meticulous attention. There are two kinds of letters (formal and informal) among them we find different categories such as:

  • Letters to friends/relatives/family members
  • Letters of congratulation
  • Making appointments
  • Asking for information
  • Letters of Business Dealings
  • Letters of saying Thanks/sorry
  • Letters appreciation
  • Letters of complaint
  • Letters to newspapers and magazines

Technical/Business Reports

One of the common forms of communication in business and science is report writing. A report is a written document consisting of information in an ordered format for a particular audience and purpose. Writing technical and business reports have need of writing and organizational skills, research capabilities and the ability to interpret data and present it in a way that even a common can easily understand.

Writing technical and business reports need your ability to arrange your thoughts clearly, concisely, and logically. After all, a technical/business report is a formal report designed to communicate relevant information in a clear and easily accessible format. It should be written in correct, non-colloquial language with due attention to style, clarity, conciseness, grammar, punctuation, and spelling. All the reports usually have a defined final organization and divided up into sections. Each section has a specific purpose, and there are peculiar guidelines for formatting each section such as:

  • Title Page
  • Abstract
  • Table of Contents
  • Introduction
  • Results
  • Conclusion
  • Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendices

Research Papers and Journal papers

A Research Paper/Article is a source of information collected from articles, books, individuals, investigations and works of art. So far a research paper is more than the sum of your sources, in excess of an assortment of various snippets of data about a point, and in excess of a review of the literature in a field. A research paper explores a viewpoint or contends a point. Despite of the kind of research paper you are composing, your completed research paper should introduce your own thoughts sponsored by others’ thoughts and data.

Research Papers/ Articles are the written reports containing the results of innovative scientific research or the review of published scientific papers. In original research papers, the authors give crucial data about the research that permits different individuals from established researchers to assess it, replicate science analyses, and furthermore to consider the reasoning and conclusions. Review articles are intended to investigate, assess, sum up or combine research previously conducted in primary scholastic sources.

Research Papers/ Articles should be written in a specific or accepted format consisting of the following headings/labels:

  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Introduction
  • Objectives/Rationale/Problem (purpose or reason)
  • Background study / Literature Review
  • Methodology
  • Main body (Points/events, etc.)
  • Recommendations/Suggestions/Solutions
  • Conclusion
  • References 

A research paper is a type of writing, generally utilized in the realm of the scholarly community by students in colleges or universities assigned to explore and investigate a theme/subject. A Journal Paper/Article is an article that is expounded on a quite certain point/topic. A journal article is a short paper on a specific subject that gets principally published in issues/ periodicals. Journal papers are published after widespread research in that relevant field. Research papers are composed customarily by a student at a college or university and the work is regularly allocated. A journal article is an article, about a subject that has just explored or investigated and composed by a specialist in that field. A research paper doesn’t get published in any publication except it’s in reference on the most proficient method to keep in touch with one, whereas journal papers are submitted to magazines or periodicals.  

Conference Papers

Conference papers are articles that are submitted to a conference to acquire an opportunity to present one’s results/research works. It is generally an oral presentation with a PP. at the outset an abstract or an article should be submitted for being reviewed by the conference organizers for selection of the papers to present at the conference. Normally the selected papers are afterwards published in the conference proceedings for more visibility.  To write a conference paper, one should check the conference conventions/standards and guidelines and be aware of any other structural or formatting styles to be followed. It is certain to present the findings in an ordered and logical manner. Conference papers should contain:

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Purpose/Objectives
  • Problem statement
  • Proposed method/ Methodology/Approach
  • Experimental data analysis and results
  • Conclusion/Implications/Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendices

Book reviews and Book Reports

A book review is a portrayal, crucial study and an assessment on the quality, meaning, and importance of a book, not a retelling. It includes its subject, strengths and weaknesses and context. It should focus on the book’s intention, content, and authority. A critical book review is not a book report or a summary. It ought to incorporate a proclamation of what the author has attempted to do. In his/her opinion, the reviewer has to evaluate how well the author has succeeded, and presents evidence to support this evaluation. The foundation of the book, research the theme, regardless of whether the book is a work of fiction should be clarified.

Book reports are enlightening reports that talk about a book from an objective position. They are like book reviews however they focus more on a summary of the work than an assessment of it. Book reports usually portray what occurs in a work; their emphasis is essentially on giving a record of the significant plot, characters, postulation, as well as principle thought of the work.

Book a form of literary criticism in which a book is merely described (summary review) or analyzed based on content, style, and merit. A book review may be a primary source, opinion piece, summary review or scholarly review. Books can be reviewed for printed periodicals, magazines and newspapers, as school work, or for book web sites on the Internet. A book review’s length may vary from a single paragraph to a substantial essay. Such a review may evaluate the book on the basis of personal taste. Reviewers may use the occasion of a book review for an extended essay that can be closely or loosely related to the subject of the book, or to promulgate their own ideas on the topic of a fiction or non-fiction work.

Book report is an essay discussing the contents of a book, written as part of a class assignment issued to students in schools, particularly at the elementary school level. There is a difference between a book report and a book review. A report includes a larger outline, and a review stays on the topic of the book. Teachers frequently give students a list of books from which they may choose one for the report, although sometimes students may select a work entirely of their own choosing. Teachers may set the list of books through such methods as including the works of one particular author, reading multiple works to students aloud and having each student select one of the books for the report, or choosing the books through a class selection process.

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